Types of Marketing Questionnaire and their Utility
Questionnaires are used as a part of market research to gather data that is crucial to the success of a specific business venture. A marketing survey questionnaire is used to collect information that cannot be obtained from secondary sources like the internet, books or newspapers. Questionnaires are frequently used in different types of market research like quantitative, qualitative and social research. Businesses use market research questions to find out a consumer's opinion on their proposed or existing products / services. Different types of survey questionnaire are used to interrogate the customer. The results are then evaluated.
A market research questionnaire can tell you more about the demand for a new product/service, the buying behavior of customers, and the attitude of customers towards the proposed product/services. With careful questionnaire construction, you can also find out about the awareness for your product, service or business among your customers. The effectiveness of the questions can be evaluated by the structure of a questionnaire. If the questions are not carefully structured, then you may obtain results that are inaccurate, irrelevant or inconclusive.
If you are planning to develop a market research questionnaire, then read further to find out how to structure and develop a questionnaire with the different types of market research questions. With the right marketing survey questionnaire, you can gain an accurate response that can be used for constructive analysis and feedback.
4 Popular Types of Research Questionnaire
This refers to a type of question that is answered only if an individual gives a specific response to a previous question. Using this type of question allows you to skip asking further questions to respondents, who gave a different reply initially.
Identical response categories are used in matrix questions. The questions are usually placed one below another, thereby forming a matrix with response categories on the top and a list of questions on the side. Matrix questions make an effective use of the time of respondents and the page space.
Closed Ended Questions
In this type of question, an individual's answer will be limited to a fixed set of responses. The different types of closed ended questions include -
- Multiple Choice Questions: The respondent is provided with several options to choose from
- Yes/No Questions: The respondent can answer only with a "no" or "yes"
- Scaled Questions: Respondents are asked to grade on a continuum. They would be asked to rate a product/service on a scale of 1 to 10, with number 10 being the most preferred (generally). The different types of scales include - semantic differential scale, Likert scale, and rank-order scale
Open Ended Questions
In this type of question, no options or predefined category will be suggested. The individual will provide his/her own answer without having to be constrained by a fixed set of possible answers. The different types of open ended questions include -
- Unstructured Questions: This type of question will be completely unstructured. A question like "Tell us your option about market research questionnaires?" will fall under this category
- Word Association Questions: Individuals are presented with words and the respondent is asked to mention the first word that comes to his/her mind
- Story Completion Question: Individuals will be asked to finish an incomplete story
- Picture Completion Question: Respondents will be asked to fill in an empty conversation speech bubble/balloon
- Thematic Appreciation Test: In this approach, an individual will be asked to look at a picture and come up with a story about what they feel is happening in the picture
- Sentence Completion: Individuals are asked to complete an incomplete sentence in their own words. For example, a respondent will be asked to complete a sentence like "My most important consideration in buying a new product/service is..."
7 Steps for Effective Questionnaire Construction
Questionnaire construction refers to a series of questions which should be asked to individuals in order to gather statistically useful information about a specific topic.
Paying attention to questionnaire construction can play a critical role in ensuring the success of a survey. Steer clear of bad questionnaire formats, inappropriate questions, incorrect scaling and incorrect ordering of questions, as this may not reflect the accurate views of your respondents.
Here are some useful tips on how to construct a right marketing questionnaire -
- Your questions should have a logical flow. The questions should naturally flow from one topic to the next one
- Ensure that the answer to a question is not influenced by any of the previous questions
- Categorize the questions as general ones or more specific ones
- Number your questions starting from the least sensitive to the most sensitive
- Include behavioral and factual questions in the beginning, followed by opinion or attitudinal questions
- Start with unaided questions, and follow it up with aided questions
- Ensure that your initial questions are screening and rapport questions, followed by product/service specific questions
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